Sinusitis


Sinusitis is inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, which may be due to infection, allergy or autoimmune issues. Most cases are due to a viral infection and resolve over the course of 10 days. Classification by -

Signs & symptoms of Sinusitis

Headache, facial pain, or pressure of a dull, constant, or aching sort over the affected sinuses is common with both acute and chronic stages of sinusitis. This pain is usually localized to the involved sinus and may worsen when the affected person bends over or lies down. Pain often starts on one side of the head and progresses to both sides. Acute sinusitis may be accompanied by a thick nasal discharge that is usually green in color, and may contain pus or blood.Often, a localized headache or toothache is present, and these symptoms distinguish a sinus-related headache from other types of headaches, such as tension and migraine headaches. Another way to distinguish between toothache and sinusitis is that the pain in sinusitis is usually worsened by tilting the head forward and with the Valsalva maneuver. Other symptoms associated with acute rhinosinusitis include cough, fatigue, hyposmia, anosmia and ear fullness or pressure.

Sinus infections can also cause middle-ear problems due to the congestion of the nasal passages. This can be demonstrated by dizziness, "a pressurized or heavy head", or vibrating sensations in the head. Postnasal drip is also a symptom of chronic rhinosinusitis. Halitosis (bad breath) is often stated to be a symptom of chronic rhinosinusitis; however, gold-standard breath analysis techniques have not been applied. Theoretically, several possible mechanisms of both objective and subjective halitosis may be involved.

A 2005 review suggested that most "sinus headaches" are migraines.The confusion occurs in part because migraine involves activation of the trigeminal nerves, which innervate both the sinus region and the meninges surrounding the brain. As a result, accurately determining the site from which the pain originates is difficult. People with migraines do not typically have the thick nasal discharge that is a common symptom of a sinus infection.

Chronic

Symptoms may include nasal congestion, facial pain, headache, night-time coughing, an increase in previously minor or controlled asthma symptoms, general malaise, thick green or yellow discharge, feeling of facial fullness or tightness that may worsen when bending over, dizziness, aching teeth, and bad breath. Often, chronic sinusitis can lead to anosmia, the loss of the sense of smell.

By location

The four paired paranasal sinuses are the frontal, ethmoidal, maxillary, and sphenoidal sinuses. The ethmoidal sinuses are further subdivided into anterior and posterior ethmoid sinuses, the division of which is defined as the basal lamella of the middle nasal concha. In addition to the severity of disease, discussed below, sinusitis can be classified by the sinus cavity it affects:

(Ref: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sinusitis)

Risk Factors of Sinusitis

The close proximity of the brain to the sinuses makes the most dangerous complication of sinusitis, particularly involving the frontal and sphenoid sinuses, infection of the brain by the invasion of anaerobic bacteria through the bones or blood vessels. Abscesses, meningitis, and other life-threatening conditions may result. In extreme cases, the patient may experience mild personality changes, headache, altered consciousness, visual problems, and, finally, seizures, coma, and possibly death

Diagnosis & Tests for Sinusitis

X-ray of Para nasal sinuses, Complete blood count

Ayurveda Concept

According to charaka, the clinical features of dusta pratishyaya are sneezing, dryness of nose, nasal obstruction, rhinorrhoea, foul smell from nose & mouth, rhinitis, furunculosis, edema of nasal mucosa, tumors of nose, blood stained muco-purulent discharge, ulcers, diseases of head, ear & eye, baldness, graying of hairs, thirst, tiredness, cough, fever, bleeding disorder, hoarse voice and dehydration.

Nidhana & Samprapthi

Suppressing of natural urges, indigestion, exposing to dust, talking loudly, indulging on more sex, night arousal, anger, apathya in season, head exposing to sun stroke, weeping, day sleep, intake of cold items, exposure to snow or moist, head/nose injury, resting the head at abnormal posture during sleep, worm infestation or infection causes the vitiation vatadi dosha either individually or together accumulates in the shiras then propagates to the nose and causes pratishyaya. Dusta pratishyaya is an upadrava of pratishyaya.

Management

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